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Spanish Symposium | Controversies in the Management of Refractory Epilepsy

Over the past decade, several new medical and surgical treatments have been developed and approved for use in medically-refractory epilepsy. There is no consensus on treatment algorithms for this group of patients. This symposium will consist of a discussion of treatment options in three types of patients with medically-refractory epilepsy. The first case involves treatment options of patients with primary generalized epilepsy, with emphasis on women of childbearing potential; the two other cases involve a patient with non-lesional extra-temporal epilepsy and a patient with lesional, dominant, and non-dominant temporal lobe epilepsy.
This educational opportunity is presented entirely in Spanish.

Learning Objectives

Following participation in this activity, learners will be able to:
  • Describe the definition of medically-refractory epilepsy
  • Identify patients with medically refractory epilepsy
  • Appreciate the different surgical and neuromodulation treatment options available for patients with refractory epilepsy
  • Describe what factors influence the treatment options for women of childbearing potential


Co-chairs: Mario A. Alonso-Vanegas, MD, and David King-Stephens, MD
Introduction: Mario A. Alonso-Vanegas, MD
Case 1: Primary Generalized Epilepsy (PGE): Seizure and Syndrome Classification: Andrea Juliao de Oliveira, MD, MSDI
Treatment Options in Women of Childbearing Potential and Refractory PGE: Ana Paula Goncalves
Case 2: Medically-refractory, Non-lesional Extra-temporal Epilepsy: Juan Carlos Lara, MD
Lesional Extra-temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Jorge Leon Aldana, MD
Case 3: Medically Refractory, Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Carlos Mayor, MD
Medically-refractory, Bi-temporal Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Walter Gonzalez, MD
Conclusions: David King-Stephens, MD
Q&A Panel Discussion

Target Audience

Adult neurologists/clinician (MD/DO), clinical trainee student/fellow, allied health professionals/advance practice providers, neurosurgeon, pediatric neurologists/clinician (MD/DO)

Program Purpose

Knowledge, competence