Materials with high surface-to-volume ratios demonstrate exquisite sensitivity and detection limits in diverse sensing applications. Integration of nanowires, nanotubes, and two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors into sensing devices, however, presents challenges inhibiting the development of products based on these materials.
To realize applications of 2D transducers in ubiquitous low-cost diagnostic devices, new fabrication approaches are required. Processes for high-rate (>106 per day) mass production of low-cost two-dimensional electronic medical diagnostic devices with limits of detection rivaling PCR will be presented. Processing methods allow for control of binding site density and adjustable dynamic range of sensor devices. Response times for most analytes are 2 minutes or less, and detection of multiple analytes on an array of sensors fabricated on a single flexible chip is straightforward.
A large supply of unfunctionalized diagnostic devices manufactured in this way may be stored to be functionalized with any selective binding agent on-demand to immediately reduce the impact of future disease outbreaks. Materials for large-scale device fabrication were selected to ensure the recyclability of the devices for reduced waste stream impact in anticipation of large numbers of devices being consumed daily.