Thank you This live web event has ended. Thank you for attending. Contributors Amanda Klein, PhD, University of Minnesota, US Amanda H. Klein, PhD, received her BS in Cell Biology and a MS in Biology from the University of Minnesota Duluth. She received her PhD from the Molecular Cellular and Integrative Physiology program at the University of California Davis. During her graduate school career she has published manuscripts in the field of chemesthesis, looking at sensations of irritation in the oral cavity and skin by chemical mediators. During her postdoctoral training, Dr. Klein worked with Dr. Matthias Ringkamp in the Department of Neurosurgery and Dr. Srinivasa Raja of the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, investigating the mechanisms of pain and itch using primary afferent recordings. The current focus of Dr. Klein's research revolves around the neural mechanisms of pain and opioid analgesia, and the role of downstream pathways, including potassium channels, to alleviate chronic pain, reduce tolerance, and decrease withdrawal symptoms. Makenzie Norris, PhD candidate, Washington University in St. Louis, US Makenzie Norris received her BS in neurobiology and physiology with minors in psychology and African-American studies from Purdue University. As a fourth-year neuroscience PhD student in the lab of Dr. Jordan McCall, she is interested in uncovering the interdependent mechanisms behind the intersection of stress and pain, and specifically how the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system modulates the process by which acute stress increases basal pain thresholds in mice. In addition, she has been working to develop an objective, high throughput pre-clinical pain assay using markerless pose estimation software with a goal to help facilitate more efficient pain therapeutic development in the future. Mitchell Nothem, PhD, Drexel University, US Mitch Nothem completed his PhD with Dr. James Barrett in 2020, where his dissertation focused on the effects of peripheral nerve injury and gabapentin on cortical pain processing as a strategy to find opioid alternatives for those in chronic pain. His postdoctoral work focuses on the interaction between chronic pain and substance use disorders. Mitch is also an avid member of the recovery community and is broadly interested in the development of treatments for chronic pain and substance use disorders. Sulayman Dib-Hajj, PhD, Yale School of Medicine and VA Connecticut Healthcare System Dr. Dib-Hajj is a Senior Research Scientist in the Yale School of Medicine and Graduate School, and Deputy Director of the Center for Restoration of Nervous System Function at the Veterans Administration Medical Center in West Haven, Connecticut. He received his undergraduate education from the American University of Beirut, Lebanon, and his PhD from the Ohio State University, Columbus, OH. His research for the past 2 decades at Yale and the VA has centered on the molecular basis of excitability disorders in humans including pain, with a focus on the role of voltage-gated sodium channels in the pathophysiology of these disorders, and as targets for new therapeutics.He has served on the Scientific Advisory Board of the Paralyzed Veterans of America Educational Foundation, and is currently serving on the Board of Directors of the National Disease Research Interchange. He serves on the editorial boards of several journals, and as a permanent member merit award panel at the VA BLRD service, and as ad hoc reviewer for the NIH and international funding organizations. He has published more than 200 primary papers and reviews, and has established national and international collaborations with academic and pharmaceutical groups.