Results of neuroimaging studies cannot be understood without knowing the anatomy of the brain, and the way how brain structure influences the interpretation of the results through interaction with image acquisition, processing and analysis. The course will provide an introduction and critical overview of classical and modern approaches for studying the anatomy of the brain using neuroimaging techniques and anatomical methods. It is aimed at a multidisciplinary audience, and will provide an introduction to gross anatomical landmarks, the microstructural organization of the brain including cortical segregation and its intersubject variability, the representation of auditory and language functions as well as brain development as assessed by MR techniques. Neuroimaging methods will be discussed with respect to their advantages, disadvantages and potential pitfalls as it concerns anatomy. The relevance of anatomical knowledge for the interpretation of structural and/or functional imaging data will be made explicit. Part one will consist of talks introducing general anatomical concepts and developmental aspects and shows, how MRI contributes. Part two will focus on organizational principles of the brain’s microstructure (cyto-, receptor- and myeloarchitecture), and critically reflects the perspectives and limits of MR imaging with respect to brain organization. Part 3 will demonstrate the complex relationships between neuroimaging and the anatomical and microscopical structure using the auditory and language systems as concrete examples. Aim of this part is to provide an integrated view of the anatomy and functions of these systems based on neuroimaging, anatomical and physiological methods.