While there is a large interest in real-time fMRI (rtfMRI), its potential as a clinical neurotheraputic tool has remained largely un-realized. Part of the problem is there is still a relatively small number of groups who have access to rtfMRI capabilities and a framework for designing clinically focused experiments. The aim of this course is to increase the community of rtfMRI researchers by decreasing the learning curve required for entry into clinically-focused use of rtfMRI. This research area is inherently appealing, but knowing how to get started can be overwhelming. This course will cover the fundamental technical requirements and approaches for rtfMRI. Additionally we will focus on the potential that rtfMRI has to be used as a clinical neuroimaging tool in diagnosis, monitoring of disease, tracking of therapeutic response, and as a neurofeedback treatment. This will include a discussion of potential psychiatric and neurological targets, the experimental flexibility provided by rtfMRI (within the biophysical constraints of BOLD fMRI), as well as pitfalls and limitations of existing studies, including control conditions and sample sizes.