With modern neuroimaging providing more and more insights into the structure, function and connectivity of the brain on different levels using sophisticated computer algorithms, it remains and becomes even more important that basic anatomical principles and biological properties are the common denominator for integrating these different pieces of evidence. The talks of this course build on each other to provide different neuroanatomical viewpoints. Starting with what can be understood using sophisticated landmarks on the brain’s surface, it will be shown where and how microstructural atlases come in handy and how the cortex is microstructurally organized. This links to modern neuroimaging approaches using ultra-high fields studying such features in-vivo as well as to the complex anatomy of the white matter with fiber tracts emanating from the axons which enter and leave the grey matter regions. The resulting tracts provide the structural connections for functional interactions between brain regions, mediated via neurotransmitters and their receptors as the molecular underpinning of resting-state connectivity. Exemplified on the visual system, it will finally be shown how these different levels of anatomical knowledge can be integrated to gain a deeper understanding of structurefunction relationships in the brain.